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第340回化学システム工学専攻公開セミナー Modeling Critical Steps in Function and Disease

日時
2019年4月1日(月)14:30-16:00
場所
東京大学工学部5号館1階57号講義室
講演題目 Modeling Critical Steps in Function and Disease
講演者 Professor Hanry Yu
Professor, Physiology and Mechanobiology, National University of Singapore
概要 ●Abstract: Plethora of devices mimicking anatomical structures or context-less phenotypes are seldom useful in application. Successful devices recapitulate the critical steps in function and disease processes. We use a mechanobiology framework to dissect the complex process of bile canaliculi contraction in normal liver and in obstructive cholestasis. The critical events switching between successive steps are natural targets for drug discovery. In another example, human stem cells model the human embryonic development. Teratogens were identified for disrupting cell differentiation and migration in one critical step of the mesoendoderm formation. Such context-specific assay performs better than the metabolic profiles of undifferentiated stem cells or the assay measuring the disruption of the entire process leading to cardiomyocyte beating. Finally, a patient-derived organoid (PDO) in wells/on chips model the non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) by expressing key phenotypes of the disease. Identifying critical phenotypes and the corresponding functional modules to model NASH represent the most important tasks in the development of a simple, robust and effective device useful for applications.

●Biography: Professor Hanry Yu translates basic knowledge and technology into solutions for industry, integrating mechanobiology, biomaterials, regenerative medicine, lab-on-chip, biomedical optics and image data analytics. He delivered >180 invited talks, published >180 journal articles, >250 conference papers, >50 patent applications; co-founded 6 companies. He has taught many students in Singapore, Hong Kong, and top US universities such as MIT, Columbia, Penn, U of California system, and 5 others. He has led multiple programs/institutions; and advises various agencies, and organizations worldwide. Professor Yu is currently a professor of physiology and mechanobiology at the National University of Singapore; a group leader at the A*STAR; Co-Lead PI at the CAMP IRG, Singapore-MIT Alliance for Research and Technology (SMART). He is a handling editor of Biomaterials.
世話人 酒井 康行(内線27073)

第339回化学システム工学専攻公開セミナー コロイド分散系の数値シミュレーション-膜分離プロセスへの応用-

日時
2019年3月12日(火) 17:30-18:30
場所
東京大学 本郷キャンパス 臨床研究棟A 9F 談話室(914号室)
※建物正面玄関入口で内線21696にお電話ください。開錠致します。
講演題目 コロイド分散系の数値シミュレーション-膜分離プロセスへの応用-
講演者 三野 泰志
岡山大学大学院自然科学研究科応用化学専攻 助教
概要 コロイド分散系の流れの理解・制御は様々な工業プロセスにおいて必要とされている。そのためのアプローチとして、近年、数値シミュレーションが用いられることが増えつつある。講演者は、数値流体シミュレーション手法の一つ、格子ボルツマン法(Lattice Boltzmann Method)を用いたコロイド分散液の流れシミュレーション技術の開発と膜分離プロセスへの応用を行ってきた。本講演では、コロイド分散系の数値シミュレーションの基本モデルについて、格子ボルツマン法を中心に説明するとともに、これまで行ってきた膜分離プロセス(膜ろ過、油水分離コアレッサー)の解析例について紹介する。また、数値シミュレーションを利用する際の注意点や問題点など、通常、学会発表や論文ではあまり言及されることのない点についても説明する。
世話人 伊藤大知 (内線21425)

第338回化学システム工学専攻公開セミナー Halide Perovskites: The New Wonder Photovoltaic Material

日時
2019年3月11日(月) 13:00-15:00
場所
工学部5号館第1輪講室(141)
講演題目 Halide Perovskites: The New Wonder Photovoltaic Material
講演者 Prof. Tze-Chien SUM,
Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
概要 Organic-Inorganic halide perovskite solar cells are presently the forerunner amongst the solution-processed photovoltaic technologies with efficiencies exceeding 23%. In this talk, I will review the photophysical mechanisms of the workhorse CH3NH3PbI3 system. In addition, I will highlight some of our findings of slow hot hole cooling phenomenon in halide perovskites [1]. Our group further uncovered that hot electrons cooling is slow as well and is relatively balanced with the hot holes. [2] I will also focus on our group’s efforts: (i) to further retard the hot carrier cooling using perovskite nanoparticles; (ii) to achieve efficient extraction of the hot carriers; [3] and (iii) to understand origins and mechanisms of slow hot-carrier cooling in halide perovskites [4]. Opportunities and challenges for hot-carrier perovskite photovoltaics will also be discussed.

[1] G. C. Xing, N. Mathews, S. Sun, S. S. Lim, Y. M. Lam, M. Graetzel, S. Mhaisalkar and T. C. Sum*, “Long-Range Balanced Electron and Hole Transport Lengths in Organic-Inorganic CH3NH3PbI3”, Science, 342 (6156) 344-347 (2013)
[2] T. C. Sum*, N. Mathews, G. Xing, S. S. Lim, W. K. Chong, D. Giovanni, H. A. Dewi, “Spectral Features and Charge Dynamics of Lead Halide Perovskites: Origins and Interpretations (Invited Article)”, Accounts of Chemical Research 49 (2) 294-302 (2016),
[3] M. J. Li, S. Bhaumik, T. W. Goh, M. S. Kumar, N. Yantara, M. Graetzel, S. G. Mhaisalkar, N. Mathews, and T. C. Sum*, “Slow Cooling and Highly Efficient Extraction of Hot Carriers in Colloidal Perovskite Nanocrystals”, Nature Communications 8 14350 (2017)
[4] J. Fu, Q. Xu, G. Han, B. Wu, C. H. A. Huan, M. L. Leek & T. C. Sum*, “Hot carrier cooling mechanisms in halide perovskites”, Nature Communications 8:1300 (2017)

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世話人 岸本史直 大久保・脇原研(内線:27368)

第337回化学システム工学専攻公開セミナー Molecular approaches and H2 technologies

日時
2019年1月31日(木) 15:00-17:00
場所
東京大学 本郷キャンパス 工学部5号館 337室(第4輪講室)
講演題目 Molecular approaches and H2 technologies
講演者 Prof. Vincent Artero
Universite Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, CEA
概要 New directions are urgently needed in energy technologies, and in particular in hydrogen technologies, to raise efficiency and stability of the systems while lowering their cost. Bio-inspiration has a great potential to making breakthroughs in research and development. In particular hydrogenase enzymes compete with platinum as catalysts for H2/H+ interconversion and such an activity can be reproduced in synthetic mimics [1] but such molecular systems are often challenged by solid-state catalysts, both in terms of activity and stability. We will show how the immobilization of biomimics onto surfaces allows the preparation of highly active electrode materials compatible with existing PEM electrolysis technology [2]. Besides, we will also revisit the structure of reactivity of amorphous molybdenum sulfide, which actually stands as a coordination polymer, therefore bridging the molecular and soli-state sides of H2/H+ catalysis [3]. Besides, we will also describe our effort towards the combination of such catalysts with various photoactive motifs for the preparation of photoelectrode materials that can be implemented into photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells for water splitting [4-7].


References
[1] N. Coutard, N. Kaeffer, V. Artero, Molecular engineered nanomaterials for catalytic hydrogen evolution and oxidation, Chem. Commun., 52 (2016) 13728-13748.
[2] F. Jaouen, D. Jones, N. Coutard, V. Artero, P. Strasser, A. Kucernak, Toward Platinum Group Metal-Free Catalysts for Hydrogen/AirProton-Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells, Johnson Matthey Technology Review, 62 (2018) 231-255.
[3] P.D. Tran, T.V. Tran, M. Orio, S. Torelli, Q.D. Truong, K. Nayuki, Y. Sasaki, S.Y. Chiam, R. Yi, I. Honma, J. Barber, V. Artero, Coordination polymer structure and revisited hydrogen evolution catalytic mechanism for amorphous molybdenum sulfide, Nat. Mater., 15 (2016) 640-646.
[4] N. Kaeffer, C.D. Windle, R. Brisse, C. Gablin, D. Leonard, B. Jousselme, M. Chavarot-Kerlidou, V. Artero, Insights into Mechanism and Aging of a noble-metal free H2-evolving Dye-Sensitized Photocathode, Chem. Sci., 9 (2018) 6721?6738.
[5] N. Queyriaux, N. Kaeffer, A. Morozan, M. Chavarot-Kerlidou, V. Artero, Molecular cathode and photocathode materials for hydrogen evolution in photoelectrochemical devices, J. Photochem. Photobiol. C,
25 (2015) 90-105.
[6] N. Kaeffer, J. Massin, C. Lebrun, O. Renault, M. Chavarot-Kerlidou, V. Artero, Covalent Design for Dye-Sensitized H2-Evolving Photocathodes Based on a Cobalt Diimine?Dioxime Catalyst, J. Am. Chem. Soc., 138 (2016) 12308-12311.
[7] C.D. Windle, J. Massin, M. Chavarot-Kerlidou, V. Artero, A protocol for quantifying hydrogen evolution by dye-sensitized molecular photocathodes and its implementation for evaluating a new covalent architecture based on an optimized dye-catalyst dyad, Dalton Trans., 47 (2018) 10509-10516.
世話人 堂免 一成(内線:21148)

第336回化学システム工学専攻公開セミナー Tools for Accelerated Medical Innovation

日時
2019年1月23日(水) 15:00-16:00
場所
東京大学 本郷キャンパス 臨床研究棟A 9F 談話室(914号室)
※建物正面玄関入口で内線21696にお電話ください。開錠致します。
講演題目 Tools for Accelerated Medical Innovation
講演者 Jeff Karp B.Eng. PhD.
Professor of Medicine
Brigham and Women’s Hospital
60 Fenwood Rd, Boston. 02115
http://karplab.net/
概要 When developing technologies to solve medical problems, often one encounters significant hurdles, that at times seem insurmountable. Overcoming these hurdles requires new ways of thinking. One approach is to turn to nature for inspiration. Millions and millions of years of research and development at our fingertips, and all we need to do is look outside to the amazing creatures that inhabit our planet. This talk will explore medical technologies being developed that harness lessons from nature for inspiration, from creatures such as geckos, spider webs, jellyfish, porcupine quills, snails, to spiny headed worms. Another approach is radical simplicity ? the art and discipline of reducing a problem to its essence. This tool has been harnessed to develop a new skin care approach that is advancing towards global market adoption, and therapeutic strategies to combat inflammatory bowel disease and arthritis that are advancing towards clinical studies. Some of the technologies that will be described are rapidly advancing to the clinic and some are already on the market helping patients. This talk opens new paths to the continual innovation that is so important in our fast-changing world.
世話人 伊藤 大知(内線21425)

第335回化学システム工学専攻公開セミナー 伝統技術にひそむ日本人のものづくり -感性と科学-

日時
2019年2月27日(水)15:30-17:00
場所
東京大学 本郷キャンパス 工学部5号館第4輪講室(337号室)
講演題目 伝統技術にひそむ日本人のものづくり -感性と科学-
講演者 黒田孝二 博士
学術・京都工芸繊維大学、元大日本印刷株式会社
概要  カラー印刷画像は10~200μmの黄赤藍墨インキの微細な網点で構成され、インキの転移速度は1ミリ秒以下と高速でとても視認できないが、現場にはこれを見立てる勘と操るコツがある。70年代の日本の半導体技術の発展は現場の暗黙知に品質管理工学が融合した成果で、液晶技術の発展は液晶材料、表示セル、IC回路、組立てシステムの各産業の現場技術が融合した成果とみることができる。今も日本の現場は体感で得た技術資産が蓄積された暗黙知の宝庫である。本講演では、印刷産業に分析センターを創設し移動分析車と高速VTRで現場目線の課題解決を目指した経験をもとに、卓越した先人の感性が育んだ伝統技術にひそむ工学要素の解明の試みを紹介する。
 科学のない1万年前の縄文土器には漆の彩色まであり、日本人の「想い」に「技」が協奏するものづくりの原点がみえる。伝統技術は、環境に優しい天然素材に「手応え感」をもとに混練、塗工、接着、成形等の技で働きかけ、ナノゆらぎ状態の素過程に秩序を与え、非平衡の発展過程を経て所期のマクロ機能へ誘導する統合技とみることができる。伝統技術の原点は「人とものとの対話」であり、そこには水の多様な動的挙動を操る匠の奥義がある。日本のものづくりの次の発展にはこれを活かした感性と総合科学の融合が大切である。今や、生産現場にIoT、研究開発現場にインフォマティクスを戦力化すべきAI時代である。本講演は是非批判的に聞いていただきたい。そこでふと気付いた独自仮説が新たな発想を育み、AI時代を導く感性を融合した新次元のイノベーションに繋がればと願っている。
 科学の導入は文明開化以来150年だが、日本のものづくりの歴史は縄文以来1万年以上の歴史がある。科学は過去知を体系化した共有基盤で、感性は夢の未来への架け橋である。
世話人 辻 佳子(内線20909)

第334回化学システム工学専攻公開セミナー Modeling Heterogeneous Reactions and Mass Transport in COMSOL Multiphysics

日時
2018年12月5日(水)15:30-16:30
場所
東京大学 本郷キャンパス 工学部5号館 輪講室(341号室)
講演題目 Modeling Heterogeneous Reactions and Mass Transport in COMSOL Multiphysics
講演者 Dr. Ed Fontes
Chief Technology Officer, COMSOL
概要 This presentation focuses on the modeling of fluid flow, mass transfer, and heat transfer in combination with heterogeneous reactions. These reactions may take place on a catalyst surface and may be treated using heterogeneous detailed geometries or homogenized porous structures with averaged effective properties. The presentation also demonstrates the use of COMSOL Multiphysics with the Reaction Engineering and CFD Modules.
世話人 辻 佳子(内線20909)

第333回化学システム工学専攻公開セミナー Case Studies from an Academic Perspective in Switching from Batch to Continuous Pharmaceutical Drug Product Manufacturing

日時
2018年12月5日(水)14:00-15:30
場所
東京大学 本郷キャンパス 工学部3号館 大会議室3(6B04号室)
講演題目 Case Studies from an Academic Perspective in Switching from Batch to Continuous Pharmaceutical Drug Product Manufacturing
講演者 Prof. Ingmar Nopens and Prof. Thomas De Beer
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis Ghent University, Belgium
概要 This presentation will focus on the drivers, needs and current trends as well as on the role of academia in switching from batch to continuous pharmaceutical drug product manufacturing. Besides giving an overview on the current developments in continuous manufacturing equipment technologies, also advancements in continuous manufacturing process development strategies and process monitoring and control methods will be presented. As a first case study, the development and potential use of a predictive platform for continuous direct compression processing through the use of extensive raw material databases will presented. In the second part of the presentation, focus will be given to continuous from-powder-to-tablet manufacturing via continuous wet granulation. In order to optimize and control continuous manufacturing through wet granulation, increased process knowledge is needed, which can be achieved by means of mechanistic modelling. An overview will be given on modelling of both the wet granulation as the consecutive drying step which is enhanced by dedicated and detailed data collection and interpretation. Finally, examples of PAT for on-line control of continuous from-powder-to-tablet manufacturing will be given.
世話人 杉山 弘和(内線27227)

第332回化学システム工学専攻公開セミナー Integrating strategic environmental assessment and material flow accounting: a novel approach for moving towards sustainable urban futures

日時
2018年11月16日(金) 16:00-18:00
場所
東京大学 本郷キャンパス 工3号館 小会議室1(6C02号室)
講演題目 Integrating strategic environmental assessment and material flow accounting: a novel approach for moving towards sustainable urban futures
講演者 Prof. Giuseppe IOPPOLO
Department of Economics, University of Messina (Italy)
Short CV
概要 Purpose
  The population living in urban areas of the world continues to grow rapidly. It is, thus, a great priority for the planning practice to embed sustainability concept in their urban development endeavors. Currently, development and expansion of urban systems stress the need to control consumption of resources, especially non-renewable ones. There is also a need to reduce related environmental impacts, while stimulating a sustainable pathway for the population and urban growth.

Methods
  Strategic environmental assessment (SEA) is useful for policy design to build an integrated method for supporting the development of a sustainable society. It undertakes territorial assessments and describes urban flows and impacts related to them by using a variety of tools, including material flow accounting (MFA). This study employs MFA, as it fits well within the scope of SEA and supports the growing environmental attention in the urban metabolism approach. Although helpful, MFA has not been systematically applied in the urban development context; for this reason, this paper proposes the integration of SEA and MFA.

Results and discussion
  Integration of SEA and MFA generates a new framework for sustainable development planning. The framework is structured in phases oriented to the continual improvement based on the Deming cycle (i.e., plan, do, check, act), a key management approach mainly used in businesses for improving the effectiveness of an organization. It can also be implemented at the urban system level. In order to maintain normative compliance, each process (urban planning, strategic environmental assessment with urban metabolism approach, participatory processes) is standardized in line with a common and mandatory approach. While the processes are integrated among them, highlighting the reciprocal contact points, the results are combined in a holistic perspective. The framework, hence, transforms the voluntary MFA tool into a mandatory process.

Conclusions
  The proposed SEA-MFA framework has the potential to unify and standardize the processes of categorizing and quantifying data in order to improve the understanding of urban metabolic principles and scale effects. It also supports management and policy development and meets the requirements of different stakeholders. The framework, thus, generated a novel approach for sustainable urban development planning by providing solutions for specific policy problems and ensuring urban ecological balance and sustainable urban futures.
世話人 菊池康紀(内線21597)、梶川裕矢 (国際高等研究所 サステイナビリティ学連携研究機構)

第331回化学システム工学専攻公開セミナー 第一原理シミュレーションによる光化学反応と不均一系触媒反応

日時
2018年11月30日(金)10:00-1130
場所
東京大学 本郷キャンパス 工学部3号館 6B04会議室
講演題目 第一原理シミュレーションによる光化学反応と不均一系触媒反応
講演者 中山 哲
北海道大学触媒科学研究所・准教授
概要 本セミナーでは、第一原理シミュレーション手法を用いて、光機能性分子と不均一系触媒反応の多次元ダイナミクス追跡によって得られる情報とそれを基にした機能設計に関する取り組みについて紹介する。光機能性分子に関しては、非断熱遷移、スピン交差、周辺の環境効果といった因子を取り入れた多次元・多状態ダイナミクス計算手法を用いることで、光機能設計に重要な光特性の理論的予測や先端的分光実験データとの直接比較が可能になることを具体的な例をもとに紹介する。また、不均一系触媒では、主に固体酸化物を用いた有機反応をターゲットとし、界面における分子の動的挙動、酸・塩基点や酸化還元特性などに着目した触媒機能解析について、計算手法についても触れながら、演者らの取り組みについて紹介する。
世話人 酒井康行(内線27073)